百度Apollo课程学习笔记


Self-Driving Overview

  • why need self-driving car

  • 5 driving levels

  • self-driving car history

  • how self-driving car work

  • hardware

  • Open Sofware Stack
    • RTOS: Ubuntu + Apollo Kernel
    • ROS
    • Decentralization: No ROS Master Scheme
    • Protobuf
  • Cloud Services
    • HD Map
    • Simulation
    • Data Platform
    • Security
    • OTA(Over-The-Air) updatea
    • DuerOS

High-Definition Map

  • 3d representation of the road
  • centimeter-level precision
  • localization: data match
  • OpenDRIVE standard

  • HD map construction

  • HD map crowdsourcing

Localization

  • need 10 centi-meter accuracy, but GPS error 1-3 meter

  • localization

  • GNSS RTK

  • Inertial Navigation
    • accelerator
    • gyroscope
  • LiDAR localization
    • ICP
    • filter: Histogram
    • advantage: robust
  • visual localization
    • match
  • multi-sensor fusion: kalman filter: prediction(Inertial) and update(GNSS LiDAR)

Perception

  • perception overview

  • classification pipeline

  • Camera images

  • LiDAR images

  • Machine Learning
    • born in 1960s
    • supervised learning
    • unsupervised learning
  • Neural Network

  • Backpropagation

  • Convolutional Neural Network

  • Detection and Classification

  • Tracking

  • Segmentation

  • Sensor Data Comparision

  • Perception Fusion

Prediction

  • realtime & accuracy
  • approaches: model-based & data-driven

  • Trajectory Generation
    • polynomial model

Planning

  • goal: find the best path from A to B on the map
  • input: map, our position and destination

  • World to Graph

  • A star algorithm

  • 3D trajectory

  • Evaluating a Trajectory

  • Frenet Coordinates

  • Path-Velocity Decoupled Planning

Control

  • steering, acceleration and brake

  • PID

  • LQR

  • MPC




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